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Chaos formation model, briny melt is produced three or more kilometers below the surface. 89 The cold, near-vacuum environment of the surface presents a hostile environment for the stability of liquid water, which means that melt that reaches the surface is on a one-way trip. 90 It is also important to note that while the Schmidt et al. model predicts the existence of some melt in areas of the near subsurface, the model also requires that these melt bodies are sealed within the ice shell and do not communicate with the underlying ocean.

67 which will provide an upper limit on the rate of current geologic activity on an icy body. Take, for example, a hypothetical icy body with a crater age of 108 years. A surface with this crater age could be produced by either patchy regional resurfacing that wipes out craters over an average period of 108 years or a global resurfacing event that occurred 108 years ago. Assuming that resurfacing processes on this hypothetical body occur randomly in either space or time, there is a 10-5 chance that they would affect any particular area of the body in a 103-year period.

Cryovolcanism has no direct terrestrial analog but appears to have occurred on several moons of the outer solar system, including Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus, Titan, Ariel, and Triton. 31 Unlike terrestrial volcanism, where the magma is usually buoyant relative to the surrounding crust, the greater density of liquid water relative to ice causes the cryolava to sink instead of rising to the surface. 37 Surface temperatures on icy bodies are very low compared to the freezing temperatures of cryolavas.

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Assessment of Planetary Prot. Rqmts. for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar Syst. Bodies - NRC

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