By Lars Landner (auth.), Dr. Lars Landner (eds.)
Hazard evaluation of a compound (xenobiotic) discharged to the aquatic setting calls for info on either publicity and results to numerous parts of the atmosphere. The multitude of ecological gradients within the Baltic Sea is used as a heritage instance for discussing the complexity of the problem and the necessity for brand spanking new methods. for this reason, this publication makes an attempt to head past the simplistic, standardized momentary laboratory assessments usually used as a foundation for probability review of chemical substances, and provides powerful emphasis to the translation of ecotoxicological information of their actual, ecological context, declaring the necessity to examine the typical mortality distribution of the inhabitants lower than research, the function of keystone species and of species with extensive ecological niches as opposed to people with slim, really expert niches.
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Extra resources for Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment: Advanced Hazard Assessment
Jernelov and Rosenberg 1976; Gray 1981). 2) The vertical transition from an euryhaline assemblagt~ of mainly North Sea or freshwater species in the upper sublittoral zone to a d(:ep-water community below the halocline in which some Arctic relict spedes are dominant (Leppakoski 1975b; Jarvekiilg 1979). These cold stenothelmal species have been shown in retrospective field studies to be quite sensitive to a variety of pollutants but test results seem to be scarce so far. 3) The decrease in primary production toward the Gulf of Bothnia (Hallfors and Niemi 1986), resulting in poorer conditions for benthic ,:::ommunities.
2) in the Baltic Sea are wide even over short distances (from fresh water at river mouths to 20 ppt in the southern Baltic). Nevertheless, most of the sea has a rather stable surface salinity of between 5 and 8 ppt. The Baltic has a primary halocline up to the Aland Sea (northern Baltic proper) at about 50-70 m depth, below which the water is slightly warmer, and has several ppt higher salinity. Farther up the Gulf of Bothnia, salinity stratification is weak. During the summer, a distinct thermocline is formed in the Baltic proper at 10-30m.
Their increasing dominance may reflect environmental factors acting parallel with the pollutant concentration gradients, e. , increased turbidity and sedimentation, altered light conditions, changes in depth distribution and availability of food organisms, etc. It is thus extremely difficult to distinguish changes induced by an individual toxicant from those due to other changes in the aquatic environment. The apparent tolerance of many representatives of the freshwater element does not encourage the selection of such species for ecotoxicological purposes.
Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment: Advanced Hazard Assessment by Lars Landner (auth.), Dr. Lars Landner (eds.)